Finance Templates and Excel Models
What is Finance?
Finance refers to the providing of funding and management of money for individuals, corporations, and governments through various finance activities including investing, lending, borrowing, forecasting, budgeting, and saving. There are three main categories of finance – personal, corporate, and public or government. CFI’s Finance Templates were created to help you on your daily tasks as an analyst.
Corporate finance focuses on the activities undertaken by a company which would affect the capital structure and ultimately maximize the value of the business. These activities include capital investments, capital financing, and dividends and return of capital.
- Capital investments: deciding which project, asset or business to invest in to earn the highest possible risk-adjusted return
- Capital financing: determining the optimal capital structure (debt vs equity financing)
- Dividends & return of capital: deciding on whether or not to return capital to investors
Careers in corporate finance would typically require the use finance templates and models in Excel to aid financial analysis, modeling and decision making. Take a look at the various corporate finance templates we have on our library.
Finance Topics You Should Know
While there is a wide range of finance concepts and theories, anyone working in the finance industry should be familiar with the following common topics:
- Financial statements: income statement, balance sheet, cash flow statement
- Cash flow: earnings before interest and tax (EBIT), earnings before interest, tax, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA), free cash flow, free cash flow to the firm (FCFF), free cash flow to equity (FCFE), cash from operations
- Revenue, profit, and margins: sales, gross margin, operating margin, net profit margin, net income
- Costs: cost of goods sold (COGS), selling, general and administrative (SG&A) expenses, marketing, interest expense, depreciation
- Financial ratios:
- Profitability ratios – gross margin, operating margin, return on assets, return on equity
- Liquidity ratios – current ratio, acid-test ratio, cash ratio
- Leverage ratios – debt ratio, debt to equity ratio, interest coverage ratio
- Efficiency ratios – asset turnover ratio, inventory turnover ratio, receivables turnover ratio
- Market value ratios – book value per share, dividend yield ratio, earnings per share EPS ratio, pricing-earnings P/E ratio
- Rates of return: internal rate of return (IRR), return on investment (ROI), return on assets (ROA)
- Interest rates and spreads: the percentage of the principal charged by a lender to a borrower for debt, directly proportional to the amount of risk associated with the borrowing
- Dividends and return of capital: cash dividends is one of the main ways a company returns its profits to shareholders
- Cost of capital (WACC): the minimum rate of return a company must earn before turning a profit, consists of both the cost of debt and cost of equity used for financing
- Risk and return: since risk and return are highly correlated especially in investing, investments with high return are more likely to be associated with higher risk